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Sourate 105 - Coran 12-21. Traductions du Coran en Europe, XIIe-XXIe siècles - Sourate s105

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Cairo Edition, 1924Context
X
سورة الفيل
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
1
أَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ فَعَلَ رَبُّكَ بِأَصْحَابِ الْفِيلِ
2
أَلَمْ يَجْعَلْ كَيْدَهُمْ فِي تَضْلِيلٍ
3
وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ
4
تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ
5
فَجَعَلَهُمْ كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ
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Revised Hamidullah, 2000Context
X
L’éléphant (Al-Fil)
1
N’as-tu pas vu comment ton Seigneur a agi envers les gens de l’Eléphant ?
2
N’a-t-Il pas rendu leur ruse complètement vaine ?
3
et envoyé sur eux des oiseaux par volées
4
qui leur lançaient des pierres d’argile ?
5
Et Il les a rendus semblables à une paille mâchée.
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Blachère, 1957Context
X
Sourate CV.
L’Éléphant.
(Al-Fîl.)
Translator's introductory remarks
Titre tiré du vt. 1.
Ce texte fait allusion à un récit de caractère semi-historique, sans doute fort connu en Arabie occidentale, au vii e siècle de J.-C. Vers 530, Abraha, vice-roi du Yémen pour le compte du Négus, avait tenté une expédition contre le Hedjaz. Toutefois son armée ayant été décimée par une épidémie, il avait dû battre en retraite vers le sud. Cet événement, déformé, fit donner aux Abyssins qui y participèrent le nom de ’Aṣḥâb-al-Fîl « Hommes de l’Éléphant ». On disait en effet qu’un éléphant se trouvait dans l’armée d’Abraha. Le même récit ajoutait que l’armée éthiopienne avait été attaquée par des oiseaux qui lançaient des pierres et tuaient ainsi les envahisseurs. Ce texte montre qu’à ce moment, le Prophète considère le centre religieux de la Mekke comme celui de la nouvelle religion. Le morceau est ancien ; Muir en fait même un texte datant de la période préapostolique.
Au nom d’Allah, le Bienfaiteur miséricordieux.
1
N’as-tu point vu comment ton Seigneur a traité les Hommes de l’Éléphant ?
2

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N’a-t-Il point fait tourner leur stratagème en confusion ?
3
N’a-t-Il point lancé contre eux des oiseaux, par vols,
4
qui leur jetaient des pierres d’argile,
Note [original edition] : sijjîl « d’argile ». Ce mot ne se rencontre qu’une fois et semble être un emprunt à l’iranien. Dans la sourate LI, 33, dans une phrase parallèle, ce mot est remplacé par ṭîn « argile séchée ».
    5
    en sorte que ton Seigneur en fit comme feuillage dévoré ?
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    Sale, 1734Context
    X
    CHAP. CV. Intitled, The Elephant; revealed at Mecca.
    In the name of the most merciful God.
    1
    HAST thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with the masters of the elephant?
    2
    Did he not make their treacherous design an occasion of drawing them into error;
    a
    Note [original edition] : how thy Lord dealt with the masters of the elephant;]
    This chapter relates to the following piece of history, which is famous among the Arabs . Abraha Ebn al Sabâh, surnamed al Ashram, i.e. the Slit-nosed, king or vice-roy of Yaman, who was an Ethiopian 1, and of the Christian religion, having built a magnificent church at Sanaa with a design to draw the Arabs to go in pilgrimage thither, instead of visiting the temple of Mecca, the Koreish, observing the devotion and concourse of the pilgrims at the Caaba began considerably to diminish, sent one Nofail, as he is named by some of the tribe of Kenânah, who getting into the aforesaid church by night, defiled the altar and walls thereof with his excrements. At this profanation Abraha being highly incensed, vowed the destruction of the Caaba, and accordingly set out against Mecca at the head of a considerable army, wherein were several elephants, which he had obtained of the king of Ethiopia, their numbers being, as some say, thirteen, though others mention but one. The Meccans, at the approach of so considerable a host, retired to the neighbouring mountains, being unable to defend their city or temple; but God himself undertook the protection of both. For when Abraha drew near to Mecca, and would have entered it, the elephant on which he rode, which was a very large one, and named Mahmûd, refused to advance any nigher to the town, but knelt down whenever they endeavoured to force him that way, though he would rise and march briskly enough if they turned him towards any other quarter: and while matters were in this posture, on a sudden a large flock of birds, like swallows, came flying from the sea coast, every one of which carried three stones, one in each foot, and one in its bill; and these stones they threw down upon the heads of Abraha’s men, certainly killing every one they struck. Then God sent a flood, which swept the dead bodies, and some of those who had not been struck by the stones, into the sea: the rest fled toward Yaman, but perished by the way; none of them reaching Sanaa, except only Abraha himself, who died soon after his arrival there, being struck with a sort of plague or putrefaction, so that his body opened, and his limbs rotted off by piecemeal. It is said that one of Abraha’s army, named Abu Yacsûm, escaped over the red sea into Ethiopia, and going directly to the king, told him the tragical story; and upon that prince’s asking him what sort of birds they were that had occasioned such a destruction, the man pointed to one of them, which had followed him all the way, and was at that time hovering directly over his head, when immediately the bird let fall the stone, and struck him dead at the king’s feet1. This remarkable defeat of Abraha happened the very year Mohammed was born, and as this chapter was revealed before the Hejra, and within 54 years, at least, after it came to pass, when several persons who could have detected the lie, had Mohammed forged this story out of his own head, were alive, it seems as if there was really something extraordinary in the matter, which might, by adding some circumstances, have been worked up into a miracle to his hands. Marracci 2 judges the whole to be either a fable, or else a feat of some evil spirits, of which he gives a parallel instance, as he thinks, in the strange defeat of Brennus, when he was marching to attack the temple of Apollo at Delphi 3. Dr. Prideaux directly charges Mohammed with coining this miracle, notwithstanding he might have been so easily disproved, and supposes, without any foundation, that this chapter might not have been published till Othman’s edition of the Korân 4, which was many years after, when all might be dead who could remember anything of the abovementioned war5. But Mohammed had no occasion to coin such a miracle himself, to gain the temple of Mecca any greater veneration: the Meccans were but too superstitiously fond of it, and obliged him, against his inclinations and original design, to make it the chief place of his new invented worship. I cannot, however, but observe Dr. Prideaux’s partiality on this occasion, compared with the favourable reception he gives to the story of the miraculous overthrow of Brennus and his army, which he concludes in the following words: "Thus was God pleased in a very extraordinary manner to execute his vengeance upon those sacrilegious wretches for the sake of religion in general, how false and idolatrous soever that particular religion was, for which that temple at Delphos was erected"6. If it be answered, that the Gauls believed the religion, to the devotions of which that temple was consecrated, to be true (though that be not certain), and therefore it was an impiety in them to offer violence to it, whereas Abraha acknowledged not the holiness of the Caaba, or the worship there practised; I reply, that the doct- or, on occasion of Cambyses being killed by a wound he accidentally received in the same part of the body where he had before mortally wounded the Apis, or bull worshipped by the Egyptians, whose religion and worship that prince most certainly believed to be false and superstitious, makes the same reflection: "The Egyptians," says he, "reckoned this as an especial judgment from heaven upon him for that fact, and perchance they were not much out in it: for it seldom happening in an affront given to any mode of worship, how erroneous soever it may be, but that religion is in general wounded hereby, there are many instances in history, wherein God hath very signally punished the profanations of religion in the worst of times, and under the worst modes of heathen idolatry1
    • 1 See the Prelim. Disc. p. 10.
    • 1 Al Zamakh. Al Beidawi, Jallal. Abulf. Hist. Gen. &c. See Prid. Life of Moh. p. 61. and D’Herbel. Bibl. Orient. Art. Abrahah.
    • 2 Refut. in Alcor. p. 823.
    • 3 See Prid. Connection, part ii. book i, p. 25. and the authors there quoted.
    • 4 See the Prelim. Disc. §. III. p. 46.
    • 5 Prid. Life of Moh. p. 63, 64.
    • 6 Prid. Connection, in the place above cited.
    • 1 Ibid. part 1, book III. p. 173.
    3
    and send against them flocks of birds,
    4
    which casts
    Facsimile Image Placeholder
    down upon them stones of baked clay
    a
    Note [original edition] : stones of baked clay;] These stones were of the same kind with those by which the Sodomites were destroyed2, and were no bigger than vetches, though they fell with such force as to pierce the helmet and the man through, passing out at his fundament. It is said also that on each stone was written the name of him who was to be slain by it.1
    • 1
    ;
    5
    and render them like the leaves of corn eaten by cattle?
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    Du Ryer, 1647Context
    X
    LE CHAPITRE DES ELEFANS,
    contenant cinq versets, escrit
    à la Meque.
    AU nom de Dieu clement & misericordieux.
    1
    Ne considere-tu pas comme ton Seigneur
    a
    Correction of : à
    traité ceux qui venoient montez sur des Elefans pour ruiner le Temple de la Meque ?
    2
    leur conspiration n’a-t-elle pas esté leur propre perte ?
    3
    Dieu a envoyé contre eux des troupes volantes
    4
    qui ont jetté sur eux des pierres, sur lesquelles leurs noms estoient imprimez,
    5
    il les a rendus semblables aux grains semez dans un champ mangez par les animaux.
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    Arrivabene, 1547Context
    X
    In nome di Dio misericordioso, e Pio. CAPITOLO LXXXVII.
    1
    Note [original edition] : Favoleggia alcune cose inaudite per mostrare di dire mirabilia.
    • [A]
    NON SAI TU come Dio
    2
    costrense
    1
    l’arti dello huomo
    2
    con l’error
    2
    dello Elefante,
    Note [Coran 12-21, MB] :
    L’ambiguïté du texte latin (« Deus artes hominum elephantis errore coegit ») est à l’origine du sens aberrant de ce passage : le traducteur italien lit « elephantis » comme un complément d’« errore », et non d’« hominum ».
      3
      mandandogli squadre di molti uccelli,
      4
      i quali per una pietra gettata
      5
      gli votavano come grano?
      Note [Coran 12-21, MB] :
      Le traducteur semble ne pas comprendre la conclusion de cette sourate.
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        Bibliander, 1550Context
        X
        AZOARA CXV.
        In n. etc.
        1
        Nunquid te latet, qualiter Deus artes hominum elephantis
        2
        errore coegit,
        3
        immittens illis uolucrum multimodarum cohortes quam plurimas,
        4
        quae per nigrorum lapidum iniectum,
        5
        illos uelut tritici corticem euacuabant.